form to actually score proposals (ver 3)The proyect for the implementation of onshore power supply to ships at berth in Spanish ports is divided in five activities:
Activity 1: Project coordination.
Spanish National Ports Agency (OPPE) was responsible for the coordination of the project.
Activity 2: Cross-sectional studies.
There are some technical, economical and environmental issues that influence the implementation of onshore power supply to ships. OPPE and three Spanish universities, members of the consortium, carried out various studies to help improving the design of OPS implementation projects in Spanish ports.
0.- National Ports Public Agency – OPPE
OPPE carried out various studies to gather and disseminate knowledge on OPS, the following ones are on technical issues,
- OPPE studied noise reduction when auxiliary engines are swicth off while ships at berth are connected to the grid
- OPPE formulated critera -minimun and to be scored- in relation to components of electric infrastructure to provide power supply to ships at berth; see presentation of said report, un summary of the report, together with form to actually score proposals (ver 3) by filling in this EXCEL file following said criteria (Nb. Spanish only).
- OPPE proposes methodology to raftly estimate the cost of providing OPS facilities in a port so that 90 % of electricity demand at berth is satisfied for ferris, containerships and cruisers. The methodology, which includes two case studies for correspondent Spanish ports, is available here under passaword which can be applied for at CONTACT.
- OPPE -with the assistance of Port Services Observatory- made a study on needs and implications of bunkering being considered a port service under the EU Regulation 2017/352.
Also, on administrative matters, corresponding documents have been drafted by OPPE to guide setting of terms of references to provide on-shore power at berth, both when various companies stablish to provide this supply and when there is only one; these documents are available -only in Spanish- upon request, please send a message using CONTACT facility provided in this WEB site at main page.
is studying the current legal framework in Spain. The aim is to identify technical and economic barriers that impede OPS implementation, and to propose solutions to minimize or eliminate them.
1.- University of Cádiz (UCA) has estimated greenhouse gases (GHG) and pollutants emitted by the auxiliary engines of ships during the time they stay at berth which can be read here (only in Spanish)
2.- University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC) launched a study on the economical assessment of the impact of exhaust gases and GHG on human health and the environment. An advanced preliminary assessment for an estimation of external costs at Spanish National ports in 2016 can be read here (only in Spanish).
Additionally, a research article is available here on environmental efficiency of Spanish port authorities using external costs in 2016 originated from Green House Gases (CO2) estimated within this Project execution. Furthermore, an article available here where environmental efficiency of Spanish ports in 2016 is presented using external costs derived from local emissions (NOx, SOx, and PM, including PM10 and PM2,5) data.
On potential of cold-ironing for the reduction of externalities from in-port shipping emissions, an article was publised by University and can be read here. A more detailled analisys for four Spanish ports is available here.
Final report on these externalities is available here.
3.1.- The Center for Automation and Robotics (CAR, which belongs to UPM and CSIC), has designed a remotely controlled cable handling system for the electric connection to ship; this design includes the basement, the turning column/pillar and the extendible arm; the connector can be handled over the through the hull window as it has three potential movements: rotating, extension and lengthening; this crane is fully electrified as three engines are electric (rotation, arm extension and cable delivery); a video of the prototype can be viewed here.
That design includes the Petri intelligent algorithm of fuzzy nets to govern the crane across various state modes and control; doctoral thesis completed on this specific issue can be read here ; and a paper on same subject issued by electronics can be read here.
This prototype has been used for building the crane to handle the electric cable for the OPS facility in Paraires Quay in the Port of Palma de Mallorca. Relevant elements of the crane taken from the prototype are describe in the document which will be accessible here.
Prototype design details can be found in documentation which will be accessible here.
Final report of this activity is summarized here.
3.2.- The School of Industrial Engineers of the Technical University of Madrid carried out a study on the additional benefits for the electrical power system that could derived from OPS.
A first approach to the impact of fluctuations of the active power injected through an energy converter on the voltage of the distribution network and the possible strategies to mitigate the induced voltage fluctuations is presented here.
The final report of the work can be read here, and its main conclusions are as follows:
First.- The connection of ships to OPS during their stay at berth can contribute locally to the grid voltage control and to the compensation of imbalances.
Second.- Connected ships can positively impact the frequency stability of the electrical system:
- An adequate control of the connection contributes to improve frequency stability.
- The higher the rated power of the ship, the greater its stabilizing effect.
- The stabilizing effect can be enhanced by optimized control strategies.
Third.- The participation of connected ships in the primary frequency control allows to increase the penetration levels of wind and photovoltaic energy sources in the electrical power system.
Fourth.- The electricity supply to ships during their stay at berth represents a significant net reduction of global CO2 emissions (reduction of onboard emissions minus increase in power plant emissions).
Activity 3: Pilot Projects.
Nowadays there are three pilot projects in Canary Island, Pasaia port and the maritime connection Palma de Mallorca-Barcelona, which involves five Port Authorities and a dozen vessels belonging to three shipping companies:
Port Authority of Tenerife (APT) has approved projects for the implementation of OPS in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de La Palma and San Sebastián de La Gomera , where there has generated great expectation in the neighbors inhabitants of the ports with regard to the reduction of the noise from ships. Fred Olsen, a company member of the consortium, plans to connect its ships to these facilities. Meanwhile, the Port Authority of Las Palmas (APLP), which also integrates the consortium, may also supply power at berth to these vessels.
Port Authority of Pasaia (APP), associated to the consortium, will offer power supply at its ro-ro vehicles specialized berth, and has already requested the electrical connection to the Iberdrola company supplying the area. The APP – together with the UECC shipping line whose vessels will be connected in Pasaia – has established the design requirements of the cable handling equipment that will supply the electric power. The supply will be at 60 Hz and 6.6 kV.
Balearic Port Authority (APB) together with Port Authority of Barcelona, will offer power supply in two berths in Palma de Mallorca and Barcelona ports respectivily to the DIMONIOS ship, belonging to ACCIONA-TRANSMEDITERRANEA. The supply will also be at 60 Hz and 6.6 kV. The electro-mechanical equipment will be supplied by ENDESA, the company which is the electrical distributor in both locations.
The detail of the previous actions will be accessible here.
Activity 4: Master Plan.
Spanish National Ports Agency (OPPE) proposed, based on studies elaborated by consultant companies INOVA, GHENOVA and SEAPLACE, a Master Plan including most convenient OPS facilities which are listed here.
Also components of this Master Plan are the following,
- Benefits derived from connecting ships at berth to electric grid
- Barriers hindering the development of this new technology (OPS)
- Measures adopted to overcome identified barriers so that provision of new OPS facilities are more easily realized
, these components can be found here too.
Studies refered above are grouped by correspondent fleets served by said OPS facilities.
Ro-ro’s and ferries (bulkcarriers too)
- OPS case for ro-ro in Santander (car-carriers)
- OPS case for bulk carriers in Castellón
- OPS case for ro-pax in Almería
- OPS case for ro-pax in Cádiz
- OPS case for ro-pax in Huelva
- OPS case for ro-pax in Málaga
- OPS case for ro-pax in Valencia
- OPS case for ro-ro in Sevilla
- OPS case for ro-ro in Vigo (car-carriers)
- OPS case for container ships in Algeciras
- OPS case for container ships in Barcelona
- OPS case for container ships in Las Palmas
- OPS case for container ships in Tenerife
- OPS case for crusiers in A Coruña
- OPS case for crusiers and ferries in Santander
- OPS case for cruisers in Cadiz
- OPS case for cruisers in Málaga
- OPS case for cruisers in Santa Cruz de Tenerife
- OPS case for cruisers in Valencia
Activity 5: Project Dissemination..
At last, OPPE together with Marine Traffic company, has developed a project Dissemination Plan to make known the benefits of implementing this energy supply system for society and the environment both all activities carried out and results obtained.